Over the summer, I had the opportunity to build a simple 8-bit CPU out of breadboard and 74LS series chips. I’m going to start here, rather than over there in describing just what a “computer” is, in general.
You will see there is much overlap between the embedded world and the “not” embedded world. Breadboard lets you plug various electrical components together and see how they relate. This lego-approach is where we will begin.